Fuel Saving Devices
In recent years there has been a widespread resurgence of interest in the applications of hydrogen as a "clean fuel" and its potential for local electricity production and use in transportation. In particular, the last few years have seen breakthroughs in our understanding of the nature, structure and biosynthesis of hydrogenases. This book describes these developments, taking a lucid, multidisciplinary approach. Scientists in fields such as clean technology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, agriculture and general biotechnology will find this an accessible resource that brings together the many facets of the subject.
This book reveals the mechanisms underlying the convergence of car fuel economy regulations in Europe, Japan and the US by drawing upon a constructivist theory of International Relations and law that focuses on business competition and environmental regulations. It offers new understanding of the topic of cars and an issue of climate change, discussing the emerging phenomenon of convergence of fuel economy regulations; addressing the role of business actors in pushing for climate change action; proposing the new model of agency with and beyond states; and providing insightful case studies from Europe, Japan and the US.
The opening chapter reviews the automobile industry and global climate change, providing a background for the discussion to follow. Chapter 2, Business Actors and Global Environmental Governance, grounds the discussion in the field of environmental governance. The third chapter is a case study examining the construction and timing of the European Union's climate policies for automobile CO2 emissions, discussing the underlying factors and the actors influencing the policies. The following chapter argues that Japan adopted its stringent fuel economy regulations primarily because of industry competitiveness, motivated by stringent environmental regulations in export markets and encouraged by a tradition of 'co-regulation' and 'corporatism' to enhance the regulations. Chapter 5 asks why the US, the first country to introduce fuel economy regulations, spent two decades in regulatory stagnation, and discusses how recent US fuel economy regulations came to converge with Japanese and European standards.
Chapter 6 compares, contrasts and analyzes fuel economy regulations among the three case studies and identifies policy implications for the future climate governance for 2015 and beyond. The final chapter explores applicability of the 'agency with and beyond the state' model to other sectors and to climate governance as a whole.
The 30th International Geological Congress was held in Beijing, China in August 1997. Leading scientists convened to present their findings and views to the international geological research community. Volume 18a of 26 focuses on the geology of fossil fuels, specifically oil and gas. All articles in the proceedings have been refereed and keynote papers have been included in Volume 1. These proceedings aim to present a view of contemporary geology and should be of interest to researchers in the geological sciences.
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Fuel Saving Devices