Fuel Saving Devices
Process engineering can potentially provide the means to develop economically viable and environmentally friendly technologies for the production of fuel ethanol. Focusing on a key tool of process engineering, Process Synthesis for Fuel Ethanol Production is a comprehensive guide to the design and analysis of the most advanced technologies for fuel ethanol production from feedstocks. It describes how process systems engineering can be applied to fuel ethanol production to achieve new levels of efficiency according to technical, economic, and environmental criteria.
Drawing on the authors' more than 15 years of process engineering and ethanol research, the book first focuses on liquid biofuels, before examining the role of process synthesis in the rapid and high-tech analysis and design of complex biotechnological processes. It then describes various types of feedstocks, including sugars, starchy crops, lignocellulosic biomass, and microorganisms, as well as hydrolysis technologies, such as saccharification. The authors cover the fuel ethanol production technologies for different feedstocks, the new technological innovations based on process integration to reduce energy consumption, and the environmental issues of bioethanol production. They also discuss the technological configurations for fuel ethanol production in the industry and the possible factors affecting food security with fuel ethanol production and consumption.
Supported by case studies that include calculations and discussions of results, this book uses a process engineering approach to explore the analysis and development of fuel ethanol production from different feedstocks. It shows how accurate analysis and precise design, along with responsible government policies, can lead to fair and sustainable development of energy crops worldwide.
An apparently appropriate control scheme for PEM fuel cells may actually lead to an inoperable plant when it is connected to other unit operations in a process with recycle streams and energy integration. PEM Fuel Cells with Bio-Ethanol Processor Systems presents a control system design that provides basic regulation of the hydrogen production process with PEM fuel cells. It then goes on to construct a fault diagnosis system to improve plant safety above this control structure. PEM Fuel Cells with Bio-Ethanol Processor Systems is divided into two parts: the first covers fuel cells and the second discusses plants for hydrogen production from bio-ethanol to feed PEM fuel cells. Both parts give detailed analyses of modeling, simulation, advanced control, and fault diagnosis. They give an extensive, in-depth discussion of the problems that can occur in fuel cell systems and propose a way to control these systems through advanced control algorithms. A significant part of the book is also given over to computer-aided engineering software tools that can be used to evaluate the dynamic performance of the overall plant. PEM Fuel Cells with Bio-Ethanol Processor Systems is intended for use by researchers and advanced students on chemical, electrical-electronic and mechanical engineering courses in which dynamics and control are incorporated with the traditional steady-state coverage of flowsheet synthesis, engineering economics and optimization.
By some estimates, at current usage fossil fuels could be exhausted around the year 2040. This has led to an increasing trend toward the use of renewable raw materials for the production of various products. Cereal straws, which consist of three different polymer entities, can supply renewable biomass that can be used in producing raw materials for the pulp and paper industry, transport fuels and chemical feedstock. This book describes the recent development of techniques for fractionation and conversion of cereal straws as environmental-friendly materials for industries. At the same time it is a comprehensive survey of straw chemistry. The first section describes the fundamentals of straw structure, its analysis and components. The second covers the extractives, which include isolation and structural characterization. The third focus on hemicelluloses. Novel and environmentally friendly isolation and modification methods and the large-scale procedure of purification are covered. The fourth section covers the occurrence, structure, and chemical modification of cellulose from various straws. The fifth section deals with straw lignins, including their occurrence, structure and constitution, isolation and heterogeneity, and physico-chemical properties. The final section is concerned with utilization of straw and straw components after chemical modification. 1. This is the first book on straw chemistry, providing the basics of straw composition and the structure of the cell walls 2. Provides the procedures to fractionate the straw components in order to produce chemical derivatives from straw cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. 3. Elucidates the new techniques for the production of biodegradable materials for the pulp and paper industries, the energy sector and chemical industry. This is the first book on straw chemistry, providing the basics of straw composition and the structure of its cell wallsProvides the procedures to fractionate the straw components in order to produce chemical derivatives from straw cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin.Elucidates the new techniques for the production of biodegradable materials for the pulp and paper industries, the energy sector and chemical industry.
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Fuel Saving Devices