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Development Of A Microbial Fuel Cell For Sustainable Wastewater Treatment

RRP $54.95

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Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process that removes contaminants and protects the environment. While some wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) recover a small portion of their energy demand through sludge handling processes, most of the useful energy available from wastewater remains unrecovered. Efforts are underway to harness energy from wastewater by developing microbial fuel cells (MiFCs) that generate electricity.
Key challenges to the development of microbial fuel cells include inefficiencies inherent in recovering energy from microbial metabolism (particularly carbon metabolism) and ineffective electron transfer processes between the bacteria and the anode. We explored the prospects for constructing microaerobic nitrifying MiFCs which could exhibit key advantages over carbon-based metabolism in particular applications (e.g., potential use in ammonia-rich recycle streams). In addition, we evaluated nanostructure-enhanced anodes which have the potential to facilitate more efficient electron transfer for MiFCs because carbon nanostructures, such as nanofibers, possess outstanding conducting properties and increase the available surface area for cellular attachment.
In the initial phase of this project, we investigated the performance of a novel nitrifying MiFC that contains a nanostructure-enhanced anode and that demonstrated power generation during preliminary batch testing. Subsequent batch runs were performed with pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europaea which demonstrated very low power generation. After validating our fuel cell hardware using abiotic experiments, we proceeded to test the MiFC using a mixed culture from a local wastewater treatment plant, which was enriched for nitrifying bacteria. Again, the power generation was very low though noticeably higher on the nanostructured anodes.
After establishing and monitoring the growth of another enriched nitrifying culture, we repeated the experiment a third time, again observing very low power generation. In the absence of appreciable and repeatable power production from pure and mixed nitrifying cultures, we focused on the second major objective of the work which was the fabrication and characterization of carbon nanostructured anodes. The second research objective evaluated whether or not addition of carbon nanostructures to stainless steel anodes in anaerobic microbial fuel cells enhanced electricity generation.
The results from the studies focused on this element were very promising and demonstrated that CNS-coated anodes produced up to two orders of magnitude more power in anaerobic microbial fuel cells than in MiFCs with uncoated stainless steel anodes. The largest power density achieved in this study was 506 mW m-2, and the average maximum power density of the CNS-enhanced MiFCs using anaerobic sludge was 300 mW m-2. In comparison, the average maximum power density of the MiFCs with uncoated anodes in the same experiments was only 13.7 mW m-2, an almost 22-fold reduction. Electron microscopy showed that microorganisms were affiliated with the CNS-coated anodes to a much greater degree than the noncoated anodes. Sodium azide inhibition studies showed that active microorganisms were required to achieve enhanced power generation.
The current was reduced significantly in MiFCs receiving the inhibitor compared to MiFCs that did not receive the inhibitor. The nature of the microbial-nanostructure relationship that caused enhanced current was not determined during this study but deserves further evaluation. These results are promising and suggest that CNS-enhanced anodes, when coupled with more efficient MiFC designs than were used in this research, may enhance the possibility that MiFC technologies can move to commercial application.


Fuel Cell Catalysis

RRP $434.99

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<p>Wiley Series on Electrocatalysis and Electrochemistry</p> <p>Fuel Cell Catalysis A Surface Science Approach <p>A Core reference on fuel cell catalysis <p>Fuel cells represent an important alternative energy source and a very active area of research. Fuel Cell Catalysis brings together world leaders in this field, providing a unique combination of state-of-the-art theory and computational and experimental methods. With an emphasis on understanding fuel cell catalysis at the molecular level, this text covers fundamental principles, future challenges, and important current research themes. <p>Fuel Cell Catalysis: <ul> <p><li>Provides a molecular-level description of catalysis for low-temperature polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cells, including both hydrogen-oxygen cells and direct alcohol cells</li> <p><li>Examines catalysis issues of both anode and cathode such as oxygen reduction, alcohol oxidation, and CO tolerance </li> <p><li>Features a timely and forward-looking approach through emphasis on novel aspects such as computation and bio-inspiration</li> <p><li>Reviews the use and potential of surface-sensitive techniques like vibrational spectroscopy (IR, Raman, nonlinear spectroscopy, laser), scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray scattering, NMR, electrochemical techniques, and more</li> <p><li>Reviews the use and potential of such modern computational techniques as DFT, ab initio MD, kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, and more</li> <p><li>Surveys important trends in reactivity and structure sensitivity, nanoparticles, "dynamic" catalysis, electrocatalysis vs. gas-phase catalysis, new experimental techniques, and nontraditional catalysts</li> </ul> <p>This cutting-edge collection offers a core reference for electrochemists, electrocatalysis researchers, surface and physical chemists, chemical and automotive engineers, and researchers in academia, research institutes, and industry.


Divergence And Convergence Of Automobile Fuel Economy Regulations

RRP $354.99

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This book reveals the mechanisms underlying the convergence of car fuel economy regulations in Europe, Japan and the US by drawing upon a constructivist theory of International Relations and law that focuses on business competition and environmental regulations. It offers new understanding of the topic of cars and an issue of climate change, discussing the emerging phenomenon of convergence of fuel economy regulations; addressing the role of business actors in pushing for climate change action; proposing the new model of agency with and beyond states; and providing insightful case studies from Europe, Japan and the US.

The opening chapter reviews the automobile industry and global climate change, providing a background for the discussion to follow. Chapter 2, Business Actors and Global Environmental Governance, grounds the discussion in the field of environmental governance. The third chapter is a case study examining the construction and timing of the European Union's climate policies for automobile CO2 emissions, discussing the underlying factors and the actors influencing the policies. The following chapter argues that Japan adopted its stringent fuel economy regulations primarily because of industry competitiveness, motivated by stringent environmental regulations in export markets and encouraged by a tradition of 'co-regulation' and 'corporatism' to enhance the regulations. Chapter 5 asks why the US, the first country to introduce fuel economy regulations, spent two decades in regulatory stagnation, and discusses how recent US fuel economy regulations came to converge with Japanese and European standards.

Chapter 6 compares, contrasts and analyzes fuel economy regulations among the three case studies and identifies policy implications for the future climate governance for 2015 and beyond. The final chapter explores applicability of the 'agency with and beyond the state' model to other sectors and to climate governance as a whole.



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Fuel Saving Devices Articles

Petrol Gas Fuel Oil
Additives Magnets Vapor devices Air bleed devices
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Fuel Saving Devices Books

Petrol Gas Fuel Oil
Additives Magnets Vapor devices Air bleed devices
Electronic devices Thermodynamic efficiency

Fuel Saving Devices





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