Fuel Saving Devices
Since the beginning of semiconductor era in microelectronics the methodology of reliability assessment became a well established area. In most cases the reliability assessment involves statistical methods for safe operating area and long term re- ability parameters at the development of semiconductor processes, components and systems. At the same time in case of catastrophic failures at any development phase the major practical method is failure analysis (FA). However FA is mainly dealing with detection of consequences of some irreversible event that already happened. This book is focused on the most important and the less summarized reliability aspects. Among them: catastrophic failures, impact of local structural inhomo- neities, major principles of physical limitation of safe-operating area (SOA), physical mechanisms of the current instability, filamentation and conductivity modulation in particular device types and architectures. Specifically, the similar principles and regularities are discussed for elect- static discharge (ESD) protection devices, treating them as a particular case of pulsed power devices. Thus both the most intriguing applications and reliability problems in case of the discrete and the integrated components are covered in this book.
This book provides an important link between the theoretical knowledge in the field of non-linier physics and practical application problems in microelectronics. It delivers different levels of understanding of the physical phenomena that play a critical role in limitation of the semiconductor device capabilities, physical safe operating area limitation, and different scenarios of catastrophic failures in semiconductor devices. The book focuses on power semiconductor devices and self-triggering pulsed power devices for ESD protection clamps. The purpose of the book is popularization of the physical approach for reliability assurance. Another unique aspect of the book is the role of local structural defects, their mathematical description, and their impact on the reliability of the semiconductor devices.
One of the major challenges the book covers is the gap in understanding of major physical regularities between the theoretical knowledge in the field of non-linier phenomena in semiconductors and the reliability and ESD protection problems in process and device development, circuit design, TCAD, and applications.
The papers contained in the volume represent lectures delivered as a 1983 NATO ASI, held at Urbino, Italy. The lecture series was designed to identify the key submicron and ultrasubmicron device physics, transport, materials and contact issues. Nonequilibrium transport, quantum transport, interfacial and size constraints issues were also highlighted. The ASI was supported by NATO and the European Research Office. H. L. Grubin D. K. Ferry C. Jacoboni v CONTENTS MODELLING OF SUB-MICRON DEVICES.................. .......... 1 E. Constant BOLTZMANN TRANSPORT EQUATION... ... ...... .................... 33 K. Hess TRANSPORT AND MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR SUBMICRON DEVICES. . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . .... ... .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 45 H. L. Grubin EPITAXIAL GROWTH FOR SUB MICRON STRUCTURES.................. 179 C. E. C. Wood INSULATOR/SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES.......................... 195 C. W. Wilms en THEORY OF THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF SEMICONDUCTOR SURFACES AND INTERFACES......................................... 223 C. Calandra DEEP LEVELS AT COMPOUND-SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES........... 253 W. Monch ENSEMBLE MONTE CARLO TECHNIqUES............................. 289 C. Jacoboni NOISE AND DIFFUSION IN SUBMICRON STRUCTURES................. 323 L. Reggiani SUPERLATTICES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 . . . . . . . . . . . . K. Hess SUBMICRON LITHOGRAPHY 373 C. D. W. Wilkinson and S. P. Beaumont QUANTUM EFFECTS IN DEVICE STRUCTURES DUE TO SUBMICRON CONFINEMENT IN ONE DIMENSION.... ....................... 401 B. D. McCombe vii viii CONTENTS PHYSICS OF HETEROSTRUCTURES AND HETEROSTRUCTURE DEVICES..... 445 P. J. Price CORRELATION EFFECTS IN SHORT TIME, NONS TAT I ONARY TRANSPORT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 . . . . . . . . . . . . J. J. Niez DEVICE-DEVICE INTERACTIONS............ ...................... 503 D. K. Ferry QUANTUM TRANSPORT AND THE WIGNER FUNCTION................... 521 G. J. Iafrate FAR INFRARED MEASUREMENTS OF VELOCITY OVERSHOOT AND HOT ELECTRON DYNAMICS IN SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES............. 577 S. J. Allen, Jr.
The software, communications and electronics markets are among the most innovative and competitive industries in the world. Robust competition means that developers and manufacturers of software, mobile phones, gaming devices, computers, digital cameras and other consumer electronics and appliances must leverage their IP rights to sustain competitive advantage. However, this can be difficult, as much innovation takes place at the intersection of patent, design and copyright law; and although much law is harmonised, there are still significant national variations both in law and in practice. Intellectual Property in Electronics and Software is a new title designed to provide practical guidance on the IP issues affecting companies working in this area. A unique compendium, it addresses the key issues of IP law in the major jurisdictions worldwide where software and electronics are developed and sold as they impact on software and electronics companies. Topics covered include the challenges of obtaining protection; software protection and the limits of patentability; patent strategy, including approaches to patent drafting to maximise protection; standards setting and reasonable and non-discriminatory licensing; open source software; and other forms of protection such as unfair competition and design rights. Written by a team of leading specialists in IP law, the book will serve as an invaluable guide to navigating the complex and overlapping rights which protect innovation in this field.
Combining technology, device design and simulation, and applications, this book is the first to deal with the design and optimization of transistors made from strained layers. Topics include background theory of the HBT, device simulation that predicts the optimum HBT device structure for a particular application, compact SiGe-HBT models for RF applications and the SPICE parameter extraction, and the enhancement of the high-frequency performance of HFETs using MOSFET or MODFET structures. The book also covers the design and application of optoelectronic devices and assesses how SiGe technology competes with other alternative technologies in the RF wireless communications marketplace.
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