Direct coal liquefaction, a synthetic liquid fuel process, is one of the major developmental alternatives for meeting the anticipated fuel demands for the twenty-first century. This work provides a retrospective assessment of past attempts in this century to develop synthetic liquid fuel and applies the findings to produce reliable and pertinent data for the future. Retrospective technology assessment, a recent methodological invention, is used by the authors to analyze the past synthetic liquid fuel programs and the reasons for their failures. Bringing to bear four different perspectives--economic, technological, policy, and historical--the authors draw broad conclusions that will help guide the next development effort in the United States.
By some estimates, at current usage fossil fuels could be exhausted around the year 2040. This has led to an increasing trend toward the use of renewable raw materials for the production of various products. Cereal straws, which consist of three different polymer entities, can supply renewable biomass that can be used in producing raw materials for the pulp and paper industry, transport fuels and chemical feedstock. This book describes the recent development of techniques for fractionation and conversion of cereal straws as environmental-friendly materials for industries. At the same time it is a comprehensive survey of straw chemistry. The first section describes the fundamentals of straw structure, its analysis and components. The second covers the extractives, which include isolation and structural characterization. The third focus on hemicelluloses. Novel and environmentally friendly isolation and modification methods and the large-scale procedure of purification are covered. The fourth section covers the occurrence, structure, and chemical modification of cellulose from various straws. The fifth section deals with straw lignins, including their occurrence, structure and constitution, isolation and heterogeneity, and physico-chemical properties. The final section is concerned with utilization of straw and straw components after chemical modification. 1. This is the first book on straw chemistry, providing the basics of straw composition and the structure of the cell walls 2. Provides the procedures to fractionate the straw components in order to produce chemical derivatives from straw cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. 3. Elucidates the new techniques for the production of biodegradable materials for the pulp and paper industries, the energy sector and chemical industry. This is the first book on straw chemistry, providing the basics of straw composition and the structure of its cell wallsProvides the procedures to fractionate the straw components in order to produce chemical derivatives from straw cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin.Elucidates the new techniques for the production of biodegradable materials for the pulp and paper industries, the energy sector and chemical industry.
Interest in biofuels began with oil shocks in the 1970's, but the more rapid development and consumption of biofuel industry in recent years has been primarily driven by mandates, subsidies, climate change concerns, emissions targets and energy security. From 2004 to 2006, fuel ethanol grew by 26% and biodiesel grew by 172%. As biofuel production continues to expand, investments in capacity expansion and research and development have been made. The 2008 food crisis emphasized the need to re-examine biofuel consequences. Biofuels remain an important renewable energy resource to substitute for fossil fuels, particularly in the transportation sector, yet biofuels' success is still uncertain. The future of biofuels in the energy supply mix relies on mitigating potential and improving the environmental gains. This book brings together leading authorities on biofuel from the World Bank to examine all of the impacts of biofuel (economic, social, environmental) within a unified framework and in a global perspective, making it of interest to academics in agricultural and environmental economics as well as industry and policy-makers.
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