Explore the potential for nanotechnologies to transform future mobile and Internet communications. Based on a research collaboration between Nokia, Helsinki University of Technology, and the University of Cambridge, here leading researchers review the current state-of-the art and future prospects for: * Novel multifunctional materials, dirt repellent, self-healing surface materials, and lightweight structural materials capable of adapting their shape * Portable energy storage using supercapacitor-battery hybrids based on new materials including carbon nanohorns and porous electrodes, fuel cell technologies, energy harvesting and more efficient solar cells * Electronics and computing advances reaching beyond IC scaling limits, new computing approaches and architectures, embedded intelligence and future memory technologies. * Nanoscale transducers for mechanical, optical and chemical sensing, sensor signal processing, and nanoscale actuation * Nanoelectronics to create ultrafast and adaptive electronics for future radio technologies * Flat panel displays with greater robustness, improved resolution, brightness and contrast, and mechanical flexibility * Manufacturing and innovation processes, plus commercialization of nanotechnologies.
Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) demonstrate simplicity of their excitation and receipt, as well as their availability to all propagation ways of signal branching and processing. SAW devices are divided into several main classes: filters for signal processing at intermediate frequencies, delay lines, resonators, filters with low losses for the input circuits of receiver, and antenna duplexers for the connected receivers. The SAW devices are not only able to conduct an effective signal processing, but also serve as a basis for multi-subsystems (matched filtering, signal processing, real-time Fourier transform processors, etc.). Additionally, SAW filters help scientists to realise the wide variety of frequency characteristics. Besides their unique electrical characteristics, SAW devices favorably differ from their analogs in small size, mechanical strength and high reliability, due to the quality of raw materials and their processing. The use of the photolithography and the achievements of group microelectronic technology in their production allow a researcher to achieve good reproducibility of parameters at relatively low cost. In addition, currently SAW devices are widely used in various sensors based on the SAW radio frequency identification. This book presents an attempt to generalise a multi-year experience on R&D of SAW devices. It develops original approaches directed at discovering solutions of technical problems, as development of various SAW devices are patented in Russia. Moreover, the book presents some experimental and theoretical research results.
The papers contained in the volume represent lectures delivered as a 1983 NATO ASI, held at Urbino, Italy. The lecture series was designed to identify the key submicron and ultrasubmicron device physics, transport, materials and contact issues. Nonequilibrium transport, quantum transport, interfacial and size constraints issues were also highlighted. The ASI was supported by NATO and the European Research Office. H. L. Grubin D. K. Ferry C. Jacoboni v CONTENTS MODELLING OF SUB-MICRON DEVICES.................. .......... 1 E. Constant BOLTZMANN TRANSPORT EQUATION... ... ...... .................... 33 K. Hess TRANSPORT AND MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR SUBMICRON DEVICES. . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . .... ... .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 45 H. L. Grubin EPITAXIAL GROWTH FOR SUB MICRON STRUCTURES.................. 179 C. E. C. Wood INSULATOR/SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES.......................... 195 C. W. Wilms en THEORY OF THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF SEMICONDUCTOR SURFACES AND INTERFACES......................................... 223 C. Calandra DEEP LEVELS AT COMPOUND-SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES........... 253 W. Monch ENSEMBLE MONTE CARLO TECHNIqUES............................. 289 C. Jacoboni NOISE AND DIFFUSION IN SUBMICRON STRUCTURES................. 323 L. Reggiani SUPERLATTICES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 . . . . . . . . . . . . K. Hess SUBMICRON LITHOGRAPHY 373 C. D. W. Wilkinson and S. P. Beaumont QUANTUM EFFECTS IN DEVICE STRUCTURES DUE TO SUBMICRON CONFINEMENT IN ONE DIMENSION.... ....................... 401 B. D. McCombe vii viii CONTENTS PHYSICS OF HETEROSTRUCTURES AND HETEROSTRUCTURE DEVICES..... 445 P. J. Price CORRELATION EFFECTS IN SHORT TIME, NONS TAT I ONARY TRANSPORT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 . . . . . . . . . . . . J. J. Niez DEVICE-DEVICE INTERACTIONS............ ...................... 503 D. K. Ferry QUANTUM TRANSPORT AND THE WIGNER FUNCTION................... 521 G. J. Iafrate FAR INFRARED MEASUREMENTS OF VELOCITY OVERSHOOT AND HOT ELECTRON DYNAMICS IN SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES............. 577 S. J. Allen, Jr.
This is a revised edition of the 1999 text on the electronic structure and properties of solids, similar in spirit to the well-known 1980 text "Electronic Structure and the Properties of Solids. The revisions include an added chapter on glasses, and rewritten sections on spin-orbit coupling, magnetic alloys, and actinides. The text covers covalent semiconductors, ionic insulators, simple metals, and transition-metal and f-shell-metal systems. It focuses on the most important aspects of each system, making what approximations are necessary in order to proceed analytically and obtain formulae for the properties. Such back-of-the-envelope formulae, which display the dependence of any property on the parameters of the system, are characteristic of Harrison's approach to electronic structure, as is his simple presentation and his provision of all the needed parameters. In spite of the diversity of systems and materials, the approach is systematic and coherent, combining the tight-binding (or atomic) picture with,the pseudopotential (or free-electron) picture. This provides parameters--the empty-core radii as well as the covalent energies--and conceptual bases for estimating the various properties of all these systems. Extensive tables of parameters and properties are included. The book has been written as a text, with problems at the end of each chapter, and others can readily be generated by asking for estimates of different properties, or different materials, than those treated in the text. In fact, the ease of generating interesting problems reflects the extraordinary utility and simplicity of the methods introduced. Developments since the 1980 publication have made the theory simpler andmuch more accurate, besides allowing much wider application.
While making up a larger percentage of the total number of designs produced each year, ASICs present special problems for system designers in the area of testing because each design is complex and unique. This book shows readers how to apply basic test techniques to ASIC design, details the impact o
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